Kestrel Generation Controls Training – Florida

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Kestrel Generation Controls Training – Florida

January 30, 2023 @ 1:00 pm - February 3, 2023 @ 11:30 am



The various organizations that oversee electricity reliability in North  America have been in existence for decades, with oversight provided by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC).  NERC’s mission is to ensure that the bulk electric system in North  America is reliable, adequate, and secure. In 1997, NERC developed a set of Operating and Planning standards for use throughout the  North American industry (NERC Planning Standards, Part II System  Modeling Data Requirements, approved by Board of Trustees,  September 16, 1997). These Planning Standards included rules for the routine verification of generating unit performance and mathematical models. 



COST: $3,150 per person (10% discount for 3 or more from same company – must register and pay at the same time)

LOCATION: Staybridge Suites

Naples-Marco Island

9401 Triangle Blvd Naples, Florida 34113

(Must book by 12/31/2022 to get the reduced rate on the rooms)


AT A GLANCE:  The course is designed for engineers and technicians and will cover the theory and practical aspects of testing,  modeling, and operation of generators,  excitation systems, power system stabilizers, turbine governors, and voltage and frequency controls for renewables assets with a focus on NERC and regional regulatory compliance standards.



The US Energy Policy Act of August 2005 contains provisions that made compliance with NERC  standards mandatory and enforceable. The  technical standards that are the topic of this short  training program are the following: 

MOD-025: Verification of Generator Gross and Net  Reactive Power Capability 

MOD-026: Verifications of Models and Data for  Generator Excitation System Functions 

MOD-027: Verification of Generator Unit Frequency  Response (Governor Controls) 

PRC-019: Coordination of Generator Voltage  Regulator Controls with Unit Capabilities and  Protection 

PRC-024: Generator Performance During  Frequency and Voltage Excursions 

Course Description 

The Kestrel Generation Controls course is designed to instruct plant engineers and technicians on the core concepts of utility generators and associated control systems with the goal of familiarizing technical utility staff with the requirements of the latest  NERC regulations and helping them identify their role in meeting these requirements within their organization. The material is tailored to cover the specific systems, configurations, and operating scenarios associated with the attendees. Each  requirement will be reviewed using the following  approach: 

■ Review technical background material  necessary to understand the topic and provide  references for further study 

■ Review the latest version of the applicable standard  along with regional interpretations of the  requirements 

■ Discuss methods of meeting technical  requirements 

■ Perform sample calculations, exercises, and simulations illustrating the technical issues and  test methods 

The course provides classroom-based instruction and utilizes a comprehensive computer-based course manual and a generator controls simulation software package. This software package allows each attendee to perform interactive simulation exercises related to various course topics, such as Generator Reactive  Capability, Generator Voltage Control, Auto  Voltage Regulator Tuning, Power System Stabilizer  Operation, and others. The simulations utilize accurate generator and control system models, allowing the user to adjust settings, alter system configurations, and control operation while viewing the simulated response on graphs and meters. The interactive simulations are an excellent means of better understanding the practical application of the course material.


Course Outline 


Review of Basic Power System Concepts

» Basic concepts governing synchronously operating power systems 

» The power system and control 

» Power transfer in AC systems 

Synchronous Generators 

» Energy conversion and the synchronous generator – generator terminal characteristics

» Off-line and online operation  

» Reactive capability 

Modeling of Inverter-Based Resources

» Positive Sequence Modeling 

» Electro-Magnetic Transient Modeling 

MOD-025 Confirmation of Reactive  Capability 

» Alternative methods (testing versus operating) voltage versus reactive limitations  documentation requirements 


Excitation System Design 

» Excitation requirements imposed by the generator and by the power system 

» Common designs: bus-fed static, rotating DC systems, rotating AC systems 

» Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR) reactive current compensation 

Power System Stability and Stabilizers

» Effect of excitation system on stability

» Oscillatory stability of synchronous machines

» Functional design of common stabilizers 

Renewable Energy Hardware Characteristics

» Wind turbines 

» Solar photo-voltaic 

» Battery storage 

MOD-026 Confirmation of Excitation Models  and Performance 

» Alternative methods manufacturer’s data, testing, disturbance recording 

» Test instrumentation and procedures

» Documentation requirements



Prime Movers 

» Common elements of utility prime movers

» Steam, gas, hydraulic, and wind turbines 

Frequency Control and Governors

» Speed governing of utility generation » Governor designs 

» Permanent droop and deadband 

» Automatic generation control 

MOD-027 Verification of Unit Frequency  Response 

» Methods of confirming frequency response  (disturbance recording, staged tests) 

» Models of turbine governors documentation  requirements 

Modeling of Inverter-Based Resources

» Positive sequence modeling 

» Electro-magnetic transient modeling 


Generator Capability 

» Over-voltage and V/Hz capability 

» Limited time field winding limits 

» Under-excited limitations 

Excitation Limiters 

» Over-excitation limiters 

» Under-excitation limiters 

Generator Protective Relays 

» Multi-function digital versus discrete relays » Fault versus overload relays 

PRC-019 Confirmation of Excitation Models  and Performance 

» Excitation limiters and relation to generator  and system capability 

» Coordinating excitation limiters and protective  relays 

» Test and documentation requirements

Coordination Considerations for IBR


January 30, 2023 @ 1:00 pm
February 3, 2023 @ 11:30 am
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